DRUG & ALCOHOL TESTING

General Testing

Drugs

  • You can test for just about any substance you desire. You tell the lab what to test for by telling them a particular panel to run. That panel will dictate which substances you wish to test for.
  • Some people throw out the term “10 Panel.” In reality this is just ten different substances that are to be tested at the lab.
  • Currently federal drug testing laws allow for 5 substances to be tested, many times, referred to as the NIDA 5 drug panel. The five are Cocaine, PCP, THC, Amp and Opiates (the true Opiates)
  • This panel was set up over 20 years ago, before the many other substances came into existence.
  • Many requests for testing now include things like Barbiturates, Synthetic Opiates, and Benzodiazepines
  • Other substances for which we have seen tests for Methadone, Dextromethorphan (cough medicine), and Methaqualone
  • Below is chart of the classes of drug and their common names

AMPHETAMINES
D-Amphetamine
Methamphetamine
MDMA (ecstasy)
MDA (adam)

BARBITURATES
Amobarbital (amytal)
Butabarbital (butisol)
Butalbital (fiorinal)
Pentobarbital (nembutal)
Phenobarbital (luminal)
Secobarbital (seconal)

BENZODIAZEPINES
Alprazolam (xanax)
Chlordiazepoxide (librium)
Clonazepam (klonopin)
Clorazepate (tranxene)
Diazepam (valium)
Flurazepam (dalmane)
Lorazepam (ativan)
Midazolam (versed)
Oxazepam (serax)
Prazepam (centrax)
Temazepam (restoril)
Triazolam (halcyon)

DRUG
Cannabinoids (marijuana)
Cocaine <metabolites>
Phencyclidine (PCP)

NARCOTICS
Codeine
Hydrocodone (lortab)
Hydromorphone (dilaudid)
Methadone (dolophine)
Morphine
Oxycodone (percodan)
Oxymorphone (numorphan)
Propoxyphene (darvon)

Spice, Bath Salts, Synthetic Cannabinoids, and Synthetic Cathenones?

  • All are a form of man-made, mind-altering chemicals, of which more and more “formulas” are being created.
  • For this reason, what formulas to test for is always a moving target and you want to use a lab that ensures the latest trending formulas are being tested.
  • K2 Spice is one type of Synthetic Cannabinoids. Synthetic cannabinoids are either sprayed on, dried or shredded plant material so they can be smoked (herbal incense) or sold as liquids to be vaporized and inhaled in e-cigarettes and other devices (liquid incense).
  • “Bath salts” is the name given to a family of drugs that have one or more manmade chemicals related to cathinone. Cathinone is an amphetamine-like stimulant found naturally in the khat plant. Bath salts are usually white or brown crystal-like powder and are sold in small plastic or foil packages labeled “Not for Human Consumption.” Sometimes labeled as “plant food”—or, more recently, as “jewelry cleaner” or “phone screen cleaner.”

Alcohol

  • This can be tested at the lab, typically with a urine sample. This is used when treating someone or monitoring an abstinence program as the detection level can be up to 40 hours.
  • Typically determining if someone is under the influence is done through a Breath Alcohol Test.

For further questions, Contact us at staff@collectionplus.com

  • Opiates are drugs derived from opium. At one time “opioids” referred to synthetic opiates only (drugs created to emulate opium, however different chemically). Now the term Opioid is used for the entire family of opiates including natural, synthetic and semi-synthetic.
  • This varies, based upon what specimen is used, but as a rule of thumb:
    • Hair: Every ½ inch from root is 30 days, max of 90 days.
    • Urine: Two–four days for most, THC 30 days.
    • Saliva – Two–four days
    • Note: This should be used as a general guideline only. Many variables may affect the amount of time that a drug remains detectable in the urine or other biological matter.
  • If you are trying to ensure that nothing could be done to tamper with the specimen, a clinic is best, as the environment is controlled.
  • This varies as to what your purpose is. If you are:
    • Concerned about any drugs in the system, then hair is the way to go, but note most only pick up Cocaine, Marijuana, Amphetamines, PCP, True Opiates and Synthetic Opiates.
    • For Abstinence programs with alcohol, then a urine “ETG” test is best.
    • Concerned about being under the influence at a particular time, then you have the option of urine or saliva. But note the rapid tests for Saliva have a hard time picking up Marijuana, so we always recommend a lab based saliva test.
  • How do I go about collecting it?
    • There are urine rapid test kits available, but be careful on the quality of the kit. We sell them for a price of $25 (includes tax).
  • For drugs:
    • First, test every month until their levels are below the range and then move to a combination of a 5 panel hair test every three months, as well as a urine-based expanded panel test. The reason being that users will migrate to other drugs.
  • For alcohol:
    • Move to a urine ETG test
  • Is the clinic tidy and well organized?
  • Do they perform testing for Federal Government Agencies?
  • Are they certified to do so?
  • For Breath Alcohol tests, do they use an Evidential Breath Testing Device that is on the Conforming Products Listing?
  • Do they use a SAMHSA certified lab, as well as a Medical Review Officer?

DRUGS

Urine Metabolyte

5 Panel
• THC, COC, AMP, OPI, PCP
CALL FOR PRICING
Expanded Panel
• See list below
CALL FOR PRICING
*THC –Zero Tolerance
• *THC cutoff is at 5 ng/ml
CALL FOR PRICING
Synthetics
• Cannabinoids (K2, Spice) and Cathinones (Bath Salts)
CALL FOR PRICING

Hair Metabolyte

5 Panel
• THC, COC, AMP, OPI, PCP
CALL FOR PRICING
Expanded Panel
• Above, plus 5 Panel plus Oxycontin, Hydrocodone, Hydromorphone
CALL FOR PRICING
Alcohol
• Not a viable option

DIRECT OBSERVATION

Direct Observation CALL FOR PRICING

ALCOHOL

Breath
• Using and Evidential Breath testing Device to screen and confirm
CALL FOR PRICING
Urine
• ETG – Presence of Alcohol 20-40 hours
CALL FOR PRICING
5 Panel
• THC, COC, AMP, OPI, PCP
CALL FOR PRICING
Expanded Panel
• Above, plus 5 Panel plus Oxycontin, Hydrocodone, Hydromorphone
CALL FOR PRICING
Alcohol
• Not a viable option

Family Testing

Note that we can test for any substance, but if it is not listed, then we need to discuss what you wish to test for and get a price for than test panel.

5 panel instant urine test (take home)

  • If non-negative, you can bring it back to us to be tested at a laboratory for an additional fee.

5 panel instant urine test (administered)


DRUGS

Urine Metabolyte

5 Panel
• THC, COC, AMP, OPI, PCP
CALL FOR PRICING
Expanded Panel
• See list below
CALL FOR PRICING
*THC –Zero Tolerance
• *THC cutoff is at 5 ng/ml
CALL FOR PRICING
Synthetics
• Cannabinoids (K2, Spice) and Cathinones (Bath Salts)
CALL FOR PRICING

Hair Metabolyte

5 Panel
• THC, COC, AMP, OPI, PCP
CALL FOR PRICING
Expanded Panel
• Above, plus 5 Panel plus Oxycontin, Hydrocodone, Hydromorphone
CALL FOR PRICING
Alcohol
• Not a viable option

DIRECT OBSERVATION

Direct Observation CALL FOR PRICING

ALCOHOL

Breath
• Using and Evidential Breath testing Device to screen and confirm
CALL FOR PRICING
Urine
• ETG – Presence of Alcohol 20-40 hours
CALL FOR PRICING

If looking for other metabolites (i.e, salvia, sweat, etc.) or other drugs, please contact us to help guide you through the options.

AMPHETAMINES
D-Amphetamine 300 ng/ml
Methamphetamine 300 ng/ml
MDMA (ecstasy) 1000 ng/ml
MDA (adam) 1000 ng/ml
BARBITURATES
Amobarbital (amytal) 300 ng/ml
Butabarbital (butisol) 300 ng/ml
Butalbital (fiorinal) 300 ng/ml
Pentobarbital (nembutal) 300 ng/ml
Phenobarbital (luminal) 300 ng/ml
Secobarbital (seconal) 300 ng/ml
BENZODIAZEPINES
Alprazolam (xanax) 300 ng/ml
Chlordiazepoxide (librium) 300 ng/ml
Clonazepam (klonopin) 300 ng/ml
Clorazepate (tranxene) 300 ng/ml
Diazepam (valium) 300 ng/ml
Flurazepam (dalmane) 300 ng/ml
Lorazepam (ativan) 300 ng/ml
Midazolam (versed) 300 ng/ml
Oxazepam (serax) 300 ng/ml
Prazepam (centrax) 300 ng/ml
Temazepam (restoril) 300 ng/ml
Triazolam (halcyon) 300 ng/ml
DRUG SCREEN
Cannabinoids (marijuana) 50 ng/ml
Cocaine <metabolites> 300 ng/ml
Phencyclidine (PCP) 25 ng/ml
NARCOTICS
Codeine 300 ng/ml
Hydrocodone (lortab) 300 ng/ml
Hydromorphone (dilaudid) 300 ng/ml
Methadone (dolophine) 300 ng/ml
Morphine 300 ng/ml
Oxycodone (percodan) 100 ng/ml
Oxymorphone (numorphan) 100 ng/ml
Propoxyphene (darvon) 300 ng/ml

Workplace-Specific Testing

All employers can test all employees and prospective employees, but some employee or prospective employee groups are limited by the reason you can test.

  • How do I create a policy?
    • Contact us and we can give you:
      • Questions for formulating a drug test policy
      • Non federal template
      • Federal template
  • How do I implement a policy?
    • Get approval from legal counsel and then present to the employees and give them 60 days, prior to implementation.
  • Pre-Employment – everyone
  • Reasonable Suspicion – everyone
  • Post Accident –everyone as long as the definition and thresholds are sound
  • Random – in California, there is no law, other than case history, but if a certain process is followed and implemented in a policy, all or some of the employees can be tested.
  • Pre-Employment – Hair
  • Reasonable Suspicion – Breath, Alcohol and Urine/Saliva
  • Post Accident – Breath, Alcohol and Urine/Saliva
  • Random – Breath, Alcohol and Urine/Saliva
  • There is nothing in California law that says you cannot conduct random drug testing, but many employers get scared off by labor law attorneys, because that decision has been left to the courts and limited case law. So most companies would rather not risk potential court costs to be proven right at the end of the day.
  • Still case law has proven that you are on solid ground, if you do the following:
    • On each job description, add as to whether that position is “safety sensitive”
    • Safety sensitive is considered,
      • Job or position where the employee holding this position has the responsibility for his/her own safety or other people’s safety. It would be particularly dangerous if such an employee is using drugs or alcohol while on job. An employee has to be with clear mind and diligent while occupying such positions.
    • So you can see it is fairly wide open
    • You then use a company that has software to administer a random program
    • You change your policy from a drug policy to an impairment policy
    • Provide at least 60 days notice to all employees
  • WE DO THIS FOR MANY EMPLOYERS and we can help guide you through the process.
  • Will my reasonable suspicion process hold up in an employment hearing or court proceeding?
    1. It is in your capacity to do so?
    2. All supervisors have undergone training recognizing signs and symptoms
    3. An objective checklist is use to document
    4. Ideally two supervisors concur
    5. You have an option to get the person home safely

We can help get you set up with an effective program and process, to include checklist and training

  • Any time after an offer of a job.
  • Yes.  We accomplish this for  a number of clients and it is not only convenient, but cost effective.  Most importantly, onsite testing provides more accurate results.
  • Click for our annual enrollment package and see our general guideline

We can help you in this area. Please contact us to get an enrollment form and details on what is required.

Contact us

  • Fedral Regulations
    • Hearse nurse or tow
  • Non federal
    • Medical attention required off site
    • Damage to property of $500 or more
  • When must I get the testing done?
    • Follow federal guideline of 8 hours after an accident for alcohol and 32 hours after for drugs
  • We will manage all or part of your entire program around substance abuse, impairment, fit for duty and ADA reasonable accommodation.
  • This is becoming more and more of an issue at the workplace. Especially when someone is in a safety-sensitive position. If someone has duties that, if impaired, could cause harm to themselves or others, then a company should really have a pre-duty prescription disclosure policy. This feeds into the American with Disabilities Act (ADA) reasonable accommodation process. The following are the steps to follow, up to and including the outcome.
    1. Define those positions which are safety-sensitive, See other FAQ (Tim, link to other hers) for definition.
    2. Put in a policy that states that if an employer is taking a prescription that could cause drowsiness (i.e., red label prescriptions) that it must be disclosed to Human Resources.
    3. HR can then choose to have the employee go to a doctor chosen by its company or by the employee’s doctor with the job description and to get a note that the employee can function in that role while on that particular medication.
    4. If a doctor will not write a note, then HR starts the ADA Reasonable Accommodation Process to with get them on a medication where they can function, or give them some another, non-safety sensitive duty, or if neither, than move them the ADA process.

FMSCA Clearinghouse – What is it, What to do and How to Do it.


Reasonable Suspicion Training for Supervisors

This is the best method for initial training of an organization and to establish the correct culture, or if it has been over two years for training. Also, the role-play is valuable, if part of a CBA.

Max number of participants per session: 10
Time:  3-4 hours
Cost:    $100 per person, minimum of $500, plus travel/lodging, etc. (may be waived)

  • Review of Policy – This may push the time to 4 hours
  • Signs and Symptoms
    • Unit 1- Marijuana
    • Unit 2- Cocaine
    • Unit 3- Opiates
    • Unit 4- Amphetamines
    • Unit 5- PCP
    • Unit 6- Other Dangerous Drugs including Club Drugs
    • Unit 7 – Alcohol – to include co-dependance
  • NOTE: With each Unit, we will role-play 1 supervisor and one employee. A union rep can be optional as a role as well.

Bio of instructor

Tom Econome holds an M.S. in Industrial Management. As one of the principals of Collection Plus, Tom aids many businesses in developing and executing effective substance abuse testing policies that are tailored to individual work place environments.   Over the past 12 years, Tom helped ensure a safe and secure work environment for over 700 businesses throughout California. The industries represented include Medical, Staffing, Construction, Retail, Food Service, Logistics and Transportation, as well as local, state and federal governmental agencies. Tom is an instructor in Substance Abuse Testing, and a Master Trainer for Breathalyzers, as well as a presenter at industry webinars. Collection Plus is an active member of both the Substance Abuse Program Administrators Administration (SAPAA) and the Drug and Alcohol Testing Industry Association (DATIA).

This is a cost effective option for new supervisors. Call for pricing.

This is a nice refresher for the entire organization every two to three years.


Marijuana

Please note that this is not propaganda, nor choosing sides in one direction or the other, but merely stating the facts and observations around a safe and secure environment.

  • Yes a company can test for Marijuana.
  • California Proposition 64 states:
    • In Section (p) Maintain existing laws making it unlawful to operate a car or other vehicle used for transportation while impaired by marijuana.
    • In Section (r) Allow public and private employers to enact and enforce workplace policies pertaining to marijuana.
  • In Colorado it is specifically allowed. A recent court decision, in reality, punted on this by stating that since it is still illegal federally, that employers can still test.
  • The Washington initiative stands silent as to this subject.

It is a generic term for the genus of Cannabis

  1. There are three species, sativa,indica, and ruderalis
  • A cannabinoid is one of a class of diverse chemical compoundsthat acts on cannabinoid receptors in cells that represses neurotransmitter release in the brain.  Many Cannabinoids, called can found in cannabis. Some proponents of usage claim there are at least 113 different cannabinoids isolated from cannabis, exhibiting varied effects, which are beneficial to the health and wellness of individuals
  • Historically, the main one spoken about has been THC (Tetrahydrocannabinol, the principal psychoactiveconstituent of cannabis.
  • The more recent Cannabinoid, Cannabidiol, is considered to have a wide scope of potential medical application and it does not contain the psychoactive effect that THC possesses.
    1. The debate of the true value in stopping seizures and protecting athletes in high-impact sports is ongoing, but there are FDA trials on the positive and negative effects of using CBD in a pure form, that is isolated from the rest of the Cannabinoids, such as THC.

In the 2008 case Ross v. RagingWire Telecommunications, Inc., the California Supreme Court held that employers are not required to accommodate an employee’s medicinal marijuana use irrespective of the Compassionate Use Act of 1996 [Health & Safety Code section 11362.5], which provides that persons using marijuana under the care of a physician are not subject to criminal prosecution by the State.  The Court commented that the Compassionate Use Act does not grant marijuana the same status as a legal prescription drug and noted marijuana is illegal under federal law, and therefore cannot be “completely legalize[d] for medical purposes.”  The Court reasoned that, since the California Fair Employment and Housing Act [Government Code section 12940 et seq. “FEHA”] does not require employers to accommodate illegal drug use, the employer could lawfully terminate the employee for using medical marijuana.

Note quite. With legalization, comes regulation of THC content. As such illegal activity still exists as people desire a higher THC content than allowed by state law. The illegal activity is now “hiding in plain sight.”

Once legal, then why can’t it to be lawful to operate a car or other vehicle used for transportation? Not even the proponents will disagree that at some level, THC does impair an individual. Think of red label prescription medications, or alcohol.

  • There is no consistent legal limit.

Unfortunately, there is not enough truly independent research to correlate a level of THC in an individual to their level of impairment. The legalization of recreational use is forcing this to occur.

  • Colorado law specifies that drivers with five nanograms of active tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in their whole blood can be prosecuted for driving under the influence (DUI). However, no matter the level of THC, law enforcement officers base arrests on observed impairment.
  • In Washington, when marijuana is involved, a blood THC level of 5 nanograms will establish that the driver was under the influence.
  • You can search for the reasoning of this level, but it is hard to find. Even the National Highway Traffic and Safety Administration (NHTSA) has told the states that they are on their own, as they do not have good studies at this time.

It has to do with the way THC metabolizes in our system and it is hard to determine the level of detraction versus the level of impairment. Various companies are furiously working on alternative methods, but most, if other than blood will still be merely presence or absence, not a specific level and if they do get a specific level there are more studies needed to see how that correlate with levels of impairment

For now the safest and the best way to avoid potential litigation around an employee under the influence causing injury, is to measure for presence or absence, regardless of what specimen type is used.